Glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde solutions (also used as fixatives) are accepted liquid sterilizing agents, provided that the immersion time is sufficiently long.

To kill all spores in a clear liquid can take up to 12 hours with glutaraldehyde and even longer with formaldehyde.

The presence of solid particles may lengthen the required period or render the treatment ineffective.

Sterilization of blocks of tissue can take much longer, due to the time required for the fixative to penetrate.

Glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde are volatile, and toxic by both skin contact and inhalation.

Glutaraldehyde has a short shelf life (<2 weeks), and is expensive.

Formaldehyde is less expensive and has a much longer shelf life if some methanol is added to inhibit polymerization to paraformaldehyde, but is much more volatile.

Formaldehyde is also used as a gaseous sterilizing agent; in this case, it is prepared on-site by depolymerization of solid paraformaldehyde.

Many vaccines, such as the original Salk polio vaccine, are sterilized with formaldehyde.


It WILL kill bacteria, inverts and start a domino effect.


Products that state “Not used for human or ANIMAL consumption”. Read the labels BEFORE giving your pets.


IUPAC poly (2-propenamide) or poly (1-carbamoylethylene)) is a polymer (-CH2CHCONH2-) formed from acrylamide subunits that can also be readily cross-linked.

Acrylamide needs to be handled using best laboratory practice (such as wearing appropriate gloves, lab coat etc. and having safe systems of work) to avoid poisonous exposure since it is a neurotoxin.

Polyacrylamide is not toxic, but unpolymerized acrylamide can be present in the polymerized acrylamide.

Therefore it is recommended to handle it with caution.

In the cross-linked form, it is highly water-absorbent, forming a soft gel used in such applications as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in manufacturing soft contact lenses. In the straight-chain form, it is also used as a thickener and suspending agent.

More recently, it has been used as a subdermal filler for aesthetic facial surgery.